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Spine
'Slipped Disc' FAQs

The spine needs to be both strong and flexible, and therefore consists of strong bones – the vertebrae – separated by flexible soft tissues – the intervertebral discs and facet joints...

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Shoulder and Elbow
Is It Really Frozen Shoulder?

Shoulder pain is a common problem. Shoulder pain is commonly labeled ‘frozen shoulder’. But what is ‘frozen shoulder’ Is shoulder pain always frozen shoulder? How do we recognise a ‘true’ frozen shoulder? What is the treatment?

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Hip and Pelvis
Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs

What is Acetabular Dysplasia? Acetabular dysplasia is a condition in which the socket of the hip joint is too shallow, or facing the wrong way. It is part of the condition known as ‘Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip’ (DDH), which was previously known as ‘Congenital Dislocation of the Hip’ (CDH)...

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Knee
ACL FAQs

ACL is the ‘Anterior Cruciate Ligament’ which is a vital part of the system that controls the complex gliding and bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics, most ACL injuries are ‘noncontact’...

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Foot and Ankle
Hallux Rigidus FAQs

Hallux Rigidus is describing the degeneration of the joint at the base of the big toe – called metatarsophalangeal, or MTP joint. It is the most common site of arthritis in the foot region. It is usually develops in adults at the ages between 30 and 60 years...

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Children
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood

Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80-85 % of cases. The spine is normal at birth but develops a deformity in childhood. It can occur in toddlers and young children, but the majority of cases occur from age 10 to 15. Two to three percent of adolescents have scoliosis. Boy and girls are equally affected by small curves, but girls are eight times more likely to develop progressive curves.

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Spine
Diagnosis of Low Back Pain FAQs

Accurate diagnosis of back pain isn’t always easy. The human spine is very complex, so it can be difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of low back pain or other symptoms...

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Shoulder and Elbow
Rotator Cuff Tear FAQs

The rotator cuff is the joined-up of tendon of four of the muscles which move the shoulder, mainly to control the stability and coordinated movement of the shoulder joint. Tears can vary hugely in severity from small partial thickness tears which may not cause any problems...

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Hip and Pelvis
Femoro - Acetabular Impingement (FAI) FAQs

Femoro-Acetabular Impingement (FAI) is a condition in which the two bones which make up the hip joint pinch against each other, or ‘impinge’, at the extremes of motion, causing damage to the joint...

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Knee
Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee: FAQs

Articular cartilage is the white shiny covering over the ends of the bones in a joint – it is the substance which makes a joint a joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage has unique mechanical properties, being very low friction, highly shock absorbing, an

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Foot and Ankle
Ankle Sprain FAQs

A sprain is a tear of a ligament. Ligament tears can vary from very minor - a few fibres stretched - to complete tears of the entire ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained...

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Children
Applications of 3D Printing Technology in Lower Limb Deformity Correction Surgery

Congenital bow-legs or acquired lower-limb deformity bring severe impacts on one’s quality of life, without clinical intervention, the problem could worsen and hinder mobility significantly. The recent introduction of the application of 3D printing technology represents a major breakthrough in lower

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Spine
Lumbar Disc Replacement FAQs

The ‘intervertebral discs’ are the shock absorbers between the bones of the spine. Unfortunately, they often degenerate – tearing, bursting, or just wearing out...

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Shoulder and Elbow
Clavicle Fracture FAQs

Fractures of the collar bone (clavicle) are common and seen in all age groups. Most are due to a fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%)...

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Knee
OA Knee FAQs

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults. It is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone...

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Foot and Ankle
Achilles Tendinopathy FAQs

Achilles tendinopathy refers to diseases of the Achilles tendon, which often caused by degenerative problems with combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This article will focus on non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy...

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Children
Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Avulsion Fracture FAQs

What is the Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine? The Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) is a piece of bone just above the hip joint, which is the attachment of part of the rectus femoris muscle, one of the quadriceps muscles of the front of the thigh...

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Spine
Sacroiliac Joint Pain FAQs

Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a challenging condition affecting 15% to 25% of patients with axial low back pain, for which there is no standard long-term treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that historical and physical examination findings and radiological imaging are insufficient...

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Hip and Pelvis
Hamstring Tendinopathy FAQs

Usually patients complain of pain in one or both buttocks after sport. With time the pain becomes more constant, and it often becomes uncomfortable to sit. This article explains the diagnosis and different treatment options on proximal hamstring tendinopathies.

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Knee
Biological Knee Replacement (BKR) FAQs

Biological Knee Replacement (BKR) involves repairing a badly damaged knee with natural tissues instead of replacing the entire knee with a metal and plastic Total Knee Replacement (TKR)...

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Foot and Ankle
Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot & Ankle

There are numerous surgical treatment methods to foot & ankle illnesses, but many of them are replaced by minimally invasive surgery (MIS), for example, Percutaneous Distal Chevron Osteotomy to treat hallux valgus, Percutaneous Cheilectomy for hallux rigidus...

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Spine
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis FAQs

Lumbar spinal stenosis most commonly causes cramping, pain or pins & needles in one’s legs; but it can also cause: back pain; loss of sensation in the legs; and sometimes problems with bladder or bowel function.

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Hip and Pelvis
Choosing among different types of hip replacement FAQs

Arthritis is one of the most common causes of pain in the hip and various treatments are available for patients at difference stages. Patients who experience light pain are suggested to do physiotherapy. When the pain gets worse, injections might be required...

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Knee
Meniscal Regeneration By Meniscal Scaffold Implant Actifit Polyurethane Scaffold

Irreparable major meniscal tears pose a very difficult problem in the young and active patients who sustain these kinds of injuries. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, the most commonly used treatment option for meniscus tear creates substantial number of patients suffering the effect of...

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Foot and Ankle
Chronic Pain After Ankle Injury

Ankle injuries are one of the most common sports injuries, accounting for 10-20% of injuries in different sports. Ankle injuries can be divided into: soft tissue (ligamentous/joint capsule) injury, bone injury (fracture/contusion), or combined. Soft tissue injuries (ankle sprain) are...

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Spine
Treatment of Cervical Disc Hernia or Degeneration

Cervical disc hernia with spinal cord or nerve root compression is a common disease. It is common in younger population including those without special risk factors. Surgical treatment has good outcomes if conservative treatment fail...

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Hip and Pelvis
Hamstring Tendon Tears FAQs

This provides information to patients on 'high' hamstring tendon ‘tears’ or ‘bone avulsions’, but not ‘tendinitis’ or ‘tendinopathy’. A ‘tear’ in this context usually means the tendon tears away from the bone. Sometimes the tendon pulls a piece of bone away, instead of tearing away from the bone...

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Hip and Pelvis
Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Avulsion Fracture FAQs

What is the Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine? The Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) is a piece of bone just above the hip joint, which is the attachment of part of the rectus femoris muscle, one of the quadriceps muscles of the front of the thigh...

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Knee
Patellofemoral Pain

Anterior Knee Pain – or pain at the kneecap - is a very common complaint. Most anterior knee pain is from the joint between the kneecap (patella) and the thigh bone (femur), known as the patellofemoral joint. This article looks at the assessment and treatment options of anterior knee pain.

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Foot and Ankle
Bunions FAQs

Hallux valgus is the medical term for “bunions”, which refers to the abnormal angulation of the big toe towards the second toe. Severe hallux valgus can lead to recurrent inflammation and pain over the bunion due to the repeated friction with shoe wear...

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Knee
Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplantation

The menisci are two rubbery crescent moon shaped flat pieces of cartilage in each knee. The English colloquial term is ‘cartilage’, which can be confusing because the knee also contains articular cartilage...

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